Unfortunately not all surgery goes to plan. However an unexpected outcome does not always mean that the surgeon has been negligent.
Indeed prior to undergoing any type of procedure all patients are supposed to be consented. In other words the benefits of the surgery are identified and discussed with the patient beforehand and any common or frequently occurring risks brought to their attention. By this means the patient is empowered to make the final decision on whether or not to proceed.
If informed consent is not obtained then any subsequent treatment would in law constitute an assault. Surgical errors are commonly found in cases which involve cosmetic surgery (e.g face lifts, tummy tucks, liposuction, breast augmentation/reduction) or gynaecological procedures (sometimes resulting in bladder injuries). “Never events” where objects such as surgical swabs are retained inside a patient are becoming an increasing problem in many UK hospitals and organ damage resulting from keyhole (laparoscopic) surgery continues to leave many patients with lasting effects.